(Not yet; 09-03; p.3)
Topics can be summarised as follows:
• Export subsidies
are paid by industrialised countries on agrarian products - e.g.
on cotton or grain. Subsequently, producers in industrialised
countries, although their costs are much higher, can offer their
produce even cheaper on the world markets than producers in developing
countries. Thus, generating income by trade becomes impossible
for developing countries, their further sinking into poverty is
• Market barriers
are established by both, developing and industrialised countries
and as well in the non-agrarian sector. The motivation lies always
in protecting one's "own" industries from competition
and so from a slump in sales, the chosen means in a respectively
advantageous structure of import taxes (among other procedures
like hinting on lack of security standards and so on).
• Intellectual property rights
are quite new in their interpretation and are mostly requested
by industrialised countries. For one part that is a dispute solely
between them, concerning e.g. copyrights in the science and media
business. To a growing extent however, it becomes a matter between
industrialised and developing countries as well: think e.g. on
patents on medicines to contain epidemics like AIDS in southern
• Trade in services
is problematic mostly for industrialised countries, because companies
in the service sector can choose to register in that state that
offers the lowest tax rates, provided that profits may be transferred
freely. To give just one example of the multitude of services:
the so-called "offshore-banking" means to register banking
companies on some far-out islands that levy relatively low taxes.
The ministers of the member states could not
reach any common agreement, so the conference ended without results.
(read on here)