(Cultivated; 05-03; p.3)
Analysed by degrees, the following picture emerges:
• about 10% of all pupils reach no degree in their schools' career,
about 60% get a middle-ranking degree and about 30% the high degree
• one half of employees has a vocational degree or a specific
vocational education, a further 15% has some higher form of vocational
degree e.g. as a master of craftsmanship or a polytechnic degree
and about 10% do have a university degree.
Such results are not really astonishing as they
are in line with the economical requirements of a developed industrial
and services-orientated country.
If one regards however the class-specific patterns of education,
one finds remarkable continuities over the years: the higher the
degree, the more dominant the percentage of children belonging
to higher vocational and this way as well educational classes.
R Geißler calls this the effect of a "social
filter": "One part of social selection therefore
depends on differences of achievements between children of different
social layers; but for both societies [Geißler differentiates
between East and West Germans as two societies; editorial note]
it is valid to say that the manifest potential for achievements
of children belonging to the lower layers is not fully exhausted."
(ibid., p. 356; translated, original in German)
This filter does prove ineffective only on the level of university
education, even if there economical constraints become a concern
for lower classes (cf. ibid., p. 357).
Using a concept of the French sociologist Pierre
Bourdieu, R Geißler explains (continuity of) societal position
by two factors, the ability to dispose of "educational
capital" - "capital scolaire" - and
of "inherited cultural capital" - "capital
culturel hérité". The latter mentioned does not denote
primarily the fact of being a club member, but class specific
patterns of socialisation and so of behaviour.
Apart from measurable - and plausibly explainable - differences
in achievements, there are more subtle forms of social exclusion
that class-specifically define careers and this way conjure up
(read on here)