(Türkiye; 04-02; p.3)
In the aftermath of the 1980 putsch a new constitution
has been brought about and eventually approved by referendum -
remember the principle of populism - in 1982. Since, the constitution
has been changed or amended within the process of accession to
the EU, always legitimised by parliamentary approval.
Economically, Turkey has opened itself to the West since the
1980s. Nevertheless, the structure of trade and trade partners
remain highly diverse. More than a half of all activities concerning
the domestic market take place within the traditional sector of
service (all following figures are based on the CIA's World fact
book 2002; http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/tu.html).
Main export goods are clothes (25 %), food products (15 %) and
textiles (10 %). Mainly, these goods are sold to Germany (20 %),
the USA (10 %), and the UK, France and Italy (5 % respectively).
Imports to Turkey are mainly machinery (30 %), chemicals - one
may assume that most of them consist of fertilisers (15 %), semi-finished
goods (15 %) and fuels (10 %) - Turkey bought them e.g. from Iraq,
thus the UN embargo has an effect on her as well. Suppliers mostly
came from Germany (15 %), but also from the USA, the UK, France,
Italy and Russia (5 % respectively).
Gross domestic product per capita in purchase power parities,
i.e. the sum of individually produced goods and offered services
measured by an index of goods, is according to the UN about 7000
US-Dollars for the year 2000. To compare this figure, the ones
for Germany and the United Kingdom are given: for Germany it was
about 25100 USD in 2000, for the UK about 23500 USD. (Cf. UNDP:
Human Development Report 2002, New York et al. 2002, p. 190f.
As stated, these are statistical figures; in reality, this wealth
is unequally distributed. A measure of inequality is the Gini-coefficient:
nought this way means equality, 100 means complete inequality.
Applying this measure, Turkey "scores" 41,5 (measured
in 1994), Germany in the same year 30,0 and the UK 36,8 in 1995.
(Cf. ibid., p. 194f.)
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